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Community Community Partners Greenhouse Guest Post Our Vision The Farm at Stonehill Winter 2014

Winter Research: From the Lab to the Field

From the Lab to The Field: Cold-Tolerance Gene Research at the Farm

Guest post by, Danielle Garceau, Class of 2015

photo of Cold-hardy crops ready for winter in the hoop house
Cold-hardy crops ready for winter in the hoop house.

Even during the quieter, less hectic winter months, there is still a surprising amount of activity at the farm. From Mesclun mix and other cold weather crops like Spinach growing along in the hoop house, to students learning in their outdoor classroom, the farm is still a happening place.

But what else might be going on? Yes, research! As the temperature begins to drop the farm is the ideal location for an ongoing study that I am conducting with Professor Irvin Pan of the Biology Department with the support of the Farm. Through this research, we are hoping to determine the underlying genetic basis for cold-tolerance in crop species known to be cold-hardy.

Funded by the American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB) Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship and the Stonehill Undergraduate Research Experience (SURE) Program, this project is a continuation of research conducted this past growing season that will shift from the lab to the farm this winter. We are collecting and analyzing field data to better understand how certain tasty plant species can survive in outdoor winter weather environments.

Over this past summer, our group identified the cold tolerance genes Inducer of CBF Expression 1 (ICE1), C-Repeat Binding Factor 3 (CBF3), and Eskimo 1 (ESK1) in known cold-hardy crops such as Broccoli, Bok-Choi, and Kale alongside the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana. We conducted an experiment to compare the expression of the cold-tolerance gene CBF3 in plants incubated at warm and cold temperatures.

This figure represents the changes in CBF3 levels over a 2 hour time period. Red arrows indicate CBF3 levels before the cold exposure and blue arrows indicate CBF3 levels after the cold exposure with numbers below the bands representing expression level as compared to before the cold exposure.
Cold Exposure Experiment: Gel Electrophoresis:   This figure represents the changes in CBF3 levels over a 2 hour time period. Red arrows indicate CBF3 levels before the cold exposure and blue arrows indicate CBF3 levels after the cold exposure with numbers below the bands representing expression level as compared to before the cold exposure.

The picture above is one of many gel electrophoreses ran on the DNA (in this case, cDNA or complementary DNA that is made from mRNA or messenger RNA) of these crop species. The bands above are the actual DNA of a specific gene that we are studying. The brighter the band, the more DNA there is in the plant tissue, meaning the plant is turning on this specific gene. As you can see from this gel picture after a 2 hour long exposure to cold temperatures, the expression level of the cold-tolerance gene CBF3 underwent as much as a 15 fold increase! We think that this may be one reason why plants like Broccoli, Kale, and Bok-Choi don’t mind colder temperatures.

photo of Greenhouse Cold Exposure Experiment in the Greenhouse at Shield Science Center.
Greenhouse Cold Exposure Experiment in the Greenhouse at Shield Science Center.

Through conducting further cold exposure experiments this winter at the greenhouse we hope to confirm these results on a larger scale and over a longer time period of one month while also recording the temperatures that the plants experience every hour using a temperature data logger.

photo of The new cold frame at The Farm.
The new cold frame at The Farm.

In addition to our work in the heated greenhouse this winter, we hope to also grow our cold-hardy plants in the newly built cold frame. Using the cold frame will allow us to gather data in a setting in which not only farmers but home gardeners could grow crops during the colder months of the year. This cold frame will also prove to be a useful learning tool in sustainable agriculture practices to students that use the farm as an outdoor classroom and engage in classes like Sustainable Agriculture – taught by Farm Manager Meigs.

In conducting this research at the farm we hope to ultimately extend the farm’s growing season further into the winter through the selection of crops most suited to colder temperatures. Through extending the farm’s growing season we also hope to enable the farm to provide fresh produce to community partners well into the winter season.

Categories
Community Community Partners Our Vision Reflections Spring 2011 Spring Cultivation 2011 Spring Harvest 2011 Summer 2011 The Farm at Stonehill Volunteer

Early Summer Bounty: Roots, Leaves, Petals, & Fruits for The Table

With the help of healthy soils, mild spring weather, and a growing crew of energetic volunteers, our crops are thriving and a diversifying harvest continues to come out of the field.

photo of red express cabbage heading up!
Our Red Cabbage is getting closer to it's harvest date.

 

Tim at the farm
Even though Tim works full-time on the Facilities Management team he finds a few hours every day to help out at The Farm.

 

 

Each week we are collecting more kinds of roots…

photo of radishes up close
Radishes, fresh from the field, & pre-rinse and delivery to My Brother's Keeper.

 

photo of green onions
Evergreen Bunching Onions

 

leaves…

photo of Bright Lights
Bright Lights Swiss Chard

 

Photo of Beet Greens
Early Wonder Beet Greens

 

petals…

photo of Nasturtiums
Nasturtiums spice up a mesclun salad mix.

 

photo of zinnias
Zinnias are some of our flowers! Many more to come.

 

and fruits…

photo of zucchini and summer squash
Zephyr Summer Squash and Dundoo Zucchini

 

from our fields…

photo of Brian Harvesting
Brian harvests kale for The Table at Father Bill's and MainSpring on a cool, late spring morning.

 

…for our partners.

 

We aim to deliver enough fresh produce to this year’s 3 partners each week to provide at least 1 portion of produce  to the individuals or families they serve.  1 portion could equate to 1/3 to 1/2 lb of kale or swiss chard, 5 beets, 2 to 3 zucchini or summer squash, or a large head of lettuce.

 

We are currently harvesting 75 portions for My Brother’s Keeper, 30 portions for the Old Colony YMCA and do one large bulk delivery for The Table at Father Bill’s and MainSpring to enrich the nutritious meals the serve up every day to over 150 people.

 

field from NE corner
Summer color is starting to grow at The Farm.

 

Come visit us soon and watch the yellow-greens of spring turn deepen to shades that only the long, warm days of summer can bring.